Wireless Temperature Measurement Validation Method for PCR Machines by Magnetic Hall-Effect Sensor

  Swivano Agmal (1*), Jalu Ahmad Prakosa (2), Agus Sukarto Wismogroho (3)

(1) Research Center for Quantum Physics, National Research and Innovation Agency - Indonesia
(2) Research Center for Photonics, National Research and Innovation Agency - Indonesia orcid
(3) Research Center for Advanced Material, National Research and Innovation Agency - Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Received: January 18, 2022; Revised: June 03, 2022
Accepted: June 22, 2022; Published: August 31, 2022

How to cite (IEEE): S. Agmal, J. A. Prakosa,  and A. S. Wismogroho, "Wireless Temperature Measurement Validation Method for PCR Machines by Magnetic Hall-Effect Sensor," Jurnal Elektronika dan Telekomunikasi, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 30-39, Aug. 2022. doi: 10.55981/jet.460


The temperature validation controlled by temperature indication has a vital role in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test machine or thermal cycler. However, the validation process is complicated for several types of  thermal cycler. Some PCR test machines must close the lid tightly while running. It makes the probe’s cable of the temperature sensor might be pinched or break when the thermal cycler lid is closed. Opening the lid (open-air condition) makes the measurement will not accurate. To solve this problem, wireless temperature measurement and validation methods for PCR machines are developed based on magnetic field measurements. The magnetic field of the object will respond to any changes in temperature. The hall-effect sensor, which is validated by gauss meter, detects any magnetic response a certain material covers even the object. This detection yields output data processed to find the thermal cycler's appropriate temperature wireless validation method. The experiment used a Neodymium magnet as a wireless probe. The position of the Neodymium magnet pole significantly affected the relation between magnetic flux and temperature in experimental results. The reversed pole toward sensors had better linearity (R2= 0.8062) than the unreversed pole (R2= 0.7794). The annealing step commonly achieved the optimum measurement uncertainty. However, the measurement uncertainty and signal sensitivity investigation recommended employing the beneficial combination of pole magnet position to design the temperature validator based on magnetic induction for a closed lid thermal cycler (PCR machine). Overall, the experimental yields can be used to build a wireless temperature validator for a sealed PCR machine based on magnetic induction.



PCR; magnetic induction; thermal cycler; magnetic hall-effect sensor

Full Text:



Y. M. D. Lo and K. C. A. Chan, “Introduction to the polymerase chain reaction,” Clin. Appl. PCR, pp. 1–10, 2006. Crossref

M. Joshi and J. D. Deshpande, “Polymerase chain reaction: methods, principles and application,” Int. J. Biomed. Res., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 81–97, 2011. [Online]. Available: http://www.ssjournals.com/index.php/ijbr/article/view/640

D.-S. Lee, “Real-time pcr machine system modeling and a systematic approach for the robust design of a real-time pcr-on-a-chip system,” Sensors, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 697–718, 2010. Crossref

A. A. Abouellail, I. I. Obach, A. A. Soldatov, P. V Sorokin, and A. I. Soldatov, “Research of thermocouple electrical characteristics,” in Mater. Sci. Forum, 2018, vol. 938, pp. 104–111. Crossref

J. A. Prakosa, D. Larassati, and others, “Development of simple method for quality testing of pt100 sensors due to temperature coefficient of resistance measurement,” in 2021 Int. Symp. Electron. Smart Devices, Bandung, 2021, pp. 1–5. Crossref

J. A. Prakosa, C. M. Su, W. B. Wang, B. H. Sirenden, G. Zaid, and N. C. E. Darmayanti, “The traceability improvement and comparison of bell prover as the indonesian national standard of gas volume flow rate,” Mapan - J. Metrol. Soc. India, vol. 36, pp. 81-87, 2020. Crossref

P. Wegierek and M. Konarski, “The temperature effect on measurement accuracy of the smart electricity meter,” Prz. Elektrotechniczny, vol. 92, no. 8, pp. 148–150, 2016. Crossref

B. R. Lyon Jr, G. L. Orlove, and D. L. Peters, “Relationship between current load and temperature for quasi-steady state and transient conditions,” in Thermosense XXII, 2000, vol. 4020, pp. 62–70. Crossref

M.-D. Calin and E. Helerea, “Temperature influence on magnetic characteristics of ndfeb permanent magnets,” in 2011 7th Int. Symp. Adv. Top. Electr. Eng., Bucharest, 2011, pp. 1–6. [Online]. Available: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/5952212.

C. Anwar, E. S. Rosa, S. Shobih, J. Hidayat, and D. Tahir, “Analysis of thermal treatment zirconia as spacer layer on dye-sensitized solar cell (dssc) performance with monolithic structure,” Jurnal Elektronika dan Telekomunikasi, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 21–26, 2018. Crossref

S. Agmal, J. A. Prakosa, and C. Astuti, “Measurement uncertainty analysis of the embedded system of microcontroler for an accurate timer/stopwatch,” in 2021 7th Int. Conf. Electr. Electron. Inf. Eng., 2021, pp. 290–294. Crossref

K. S. Chong, N. A. Devi, K. B. Gan, and S.-M. Then, “Design and development of polymerase chain reaction thermal cycler using proportional-integral temperature controller,” Malaysian J. Fundam. Appl. Sci., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 213–218, 2018. Crossref

G. S. Marchini et al., “Infrared thermometer: an accurate tool for temperature measurement during renal surgery,” Int. braz j urol, vol. 39, pp. 572–578, 2013. Crossref

S. Masoudi, M. A. Gholami, J. M. Iariche, and A. Vafadar, “Infrared temperature measurement and increasing infrared measurement accuracy in the context of machining process,” Adv. Prod. Eng. & Manag., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 353–362, 2017. Crossref

H. Wiriadinata, “Termometer inframerah: teori dan kalibrasi,”, Indonesia: LIPI Press, 2015.

A. A. Ali, G. Yanling, and C. Zifan, “Study of hall effect sensor and variety of temperature related sensitivity,” J. Eng. Technol. Sci, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 308–321, 2017. Crossref

P. Zhou, D. Lin, Y. Xiao, N. Lambert, and M. A. Rahman, “Temperature-dependent demagnetization model of permanent magnets for finite element analysis,” IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 1031–1034, 2012. Crossref

F. Shir, E. Della Torre, L. H. Bennett, C. Mavriplis, and R. D. Shull, “Modeling of magnetization and demagnetization in magnetic regenerative refrigeration,” IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 2098–2100, 2004. Crossref

S. P. Nalavade, A. D. Patange, C. L. Prabhune, S. S. Mulik, and M. S. Shewale, “Development of 12 channel temperature acquisition system for heat exchanger using max6675 and arduino interface,” in Innov. Des. Anal. Dev. Pract. Aerosp. Automot. Eng. (I-DAD 2018), Springer, 2019, pp. 119–125. Crossref

J. A. Prakosa, A. V. Putov, and A. D. Stotckaia, “Measurement uncertainty of closed loop control system for water flow rate,” 2019, pp. 60-63. Crossref

T. Kristiantoro, N. Idayanti, N. Sudrajat, A. Septiani, D. Mulyadi, and others, “Uncertainty measurement on the characteristics of permanent magnet materials using permagraph measuring instruments,” (in Indonesia), Jurnal Elektronika dan Telekomunikasi, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 2016. Crossref

M. Kok, J. D. Hol, T. B. Schön, F. Gustafsson, and H. Luinge, “Calibration of a magnetometer in combination with inertial sensors,” in 2012 15th Int. Conf. Inf. Fusion, 2012, pp. 787–793. [Online]. Available: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/6289882.

E. Dorveaux, D. Vissière, A.-P. Martin, and N. Petit, “Iterative calibration method for inertial and magnetic sensors,” in Proc. 48h IEEE Conf. Decis. Control held jointly with 2009 28th Chinese Control Conf., 2009, pp. 8296–8303. Crossref

K. H. Sanjaya et al., “Low-cost multimodal physiological telemonitoring system through internet of things,” Jurnal Elektronika dan Telekomunikasi, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 55–63, 2021. Crossref

S. Wijonarko et al., “Empirical formulas between outdoor temperature and humidity,” in 2021 7th Int. Conf. Electr. Electron. Inf. Eng., 2021, pp. 1–6. Crossref

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Jurnal Elektronika dan Telekomunikasi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.