Structural, Magnetic, and X-Band Microwave Absorbing Properties of Ni-Ferrites Prepared Using Oxidized Mill Scales

  Ardita Septiani (1*), Novrita Idayanti (2), Tony Kristiantoro (3), Dedi Mada (4), Nadya Larasati Kartika (5), Dadang Mulyadi (6), Asep Rusmana (7), Pepen Sumpena (8)

(1) Indonesian Institute of Sciences - Indonesia
(2) Indonesian Institute of Sciences - Indonesia
(3) Indonesian Institute of Sciences - Indonesia
(4) Indonesian Institute of Sciences - Indonesia
(5) Indonesian Institute of Sciences - Indonesia
(6) Indonesian Institute of Sciences - Indonesia
(7) Indonesian Institute of Sciences - Indonesia
(8) Indonesian Institute of Sciences - Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Received: November 15, 2020; Revised: December 16, 2020
Accepted: March 15, 2021; Published: August 31, 2021

How to cite (IEEE): A. Septiani, N. Idayanti, T. Kristiantoro, D. Mada, N. L. Kartika, D. Mulyadi, A. Rusmana,  and P. Sumpena, "Structural, Magnetic, and X-Band Microwave Absorbing Properties of Ni-Ferrites Prepared Using Oxidized Mill Scales," Jurnal Elektronika dan Telekomunikasi, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 27-34, Aug. 2021. doi: 10.14203/jet.v21.27-34


This study aims to evaluate the structural, magnetic, and microwave absorbing properties at the X-band region of oxidized mill scales as by-product derived from a steel making process by means of a facile solid-state reaction. The oxidized mill scales were heated at 600 °C for 4 h followed by mixing with NiO. A calcination process took place at 900 °C and sintering process were conducted at 1260 °C with a milling process conducted in between the heating process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) were employed to evaluate the structural properties of the Ni-ferrites samples. Remacomp measurement were conducted to evaluate the magnetic properties and vector network analyzer (VNA) to measure its microwave properties. A single phase of NiFe2O4 was confirmed by XRD data. The site occupancies derived from the Rietveld refinement shows that the Ni:Fe:O ratio deviates from the 1:2:4 ratio as that suggests vacancies formed in the Ni2+ and Fe3+ that lowers the unit cell density to 5.08 g/cm3 that further confirmed by EDS measurement. The coercivity of 11 kOe is also higher than the bulk NiFe2O4¬ prepared by the chemical grade raw materials. The reflection data of the microwave properties at X-band of 8-12 GHz do not shows significant absorptions. This study suggests that the selected preparation method yields a single phase, however with the significant crystallographic defects and has less ‘soft’ magnetic properties compared to NiFe2O4 prepared using chemical grade by previous study.



Spinel ferrites; mill scales; soft magnets; magnetic materials

Full Text:



S. Cho and J. Lee, “Metal recovery from stainless steel mill scale by microwave heating,” Metals. Mater. Int., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 193-196, 2008. Crossref

H. H. Hoffman and J. J. Hoffman, “Process for recovery of iron/steel from mill scales and fines,” U.S. Patent US20150013497A1, Jan. 15, 2015.

S. A. Abdel-Hameed, I. Hamed M., B. J. Muller-Borer, and N. A. Erhan, “Preparation and characterization of magnetic glass ceramics derived from iron oxides bearing rolling mill scales wastes,” Nano Res. Appl., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1-11, 2015.

A. Septiani, N. Idayanti, and T. Kristiantoro, “Preparation of barium hexaferrite powders using oxidized steel scales waste,” in American Institute Physics Conf. Proc., vol. 1711, no. 1, 2016, pp. 020002-1–020002-4. Crossref

Y. M. Z. Ahmed, E. M. M. Ewais, and Z. I. Zaki, “In situ synthesis of high density magnetic ferrite spinel (MgFe2O4) compacts using a mixture of conventional raw materials and waste iron oxide,” J. Alloys Compd., vol. 489, no. 1, pp. 269-274, 2010. Crossref

Z. Hari, M. W. H. Alias, A. Anuar, and N. A. Hamid, “A study of mill scale derived hematite process for NiZn ferrite as EMI suppressor in terms of magnetic properties,” J. Eng. Appl. Sci., vol. 12, no. 17, pp. 4426-4430, 2017.

Ç. E. Demirci, P. K. Manna, Y. Wroczynskyj, S. Aktürk, and J. van Lierop, “A comparison of the magnetism of cobalt-, manganese-, and nickel-ferrite nanoparticles,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 1-11, 2017. Crossref

M. A. Dar, J. Shah, W. A. Siddiqui, and R. K. Kotnala, “Study of structure and magnetic properties of Ni–Zn ferrite nano-particles synthesized via co-precipitation and reverse micro-emulsion technique,” Appl. Nanosci., vol. 4, pp. 675-682, 2014. Crossref

A. Franco and M. S. Silva, “High temperature magnetic properties of magnesium ferrite nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. vol. 109, no. 7, pp. 07B505-1–07B505-3, 2011. Crossref

O. Yalçın, “Ferromagnetic resonance,” in Ferromagnetic Resonance - Theory and Applications, UK: O. Yalçın IntechOpen, 2013. Crossref

M. Kooti and A. N. Sedeh, “Synthesis and characterization of NiFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles by combustion method,” J. Mater. Sci. Technol., vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 34-38, 2013. Crossref

L. Andjelković, M. Šuljagić, M. Lakić, D. Jeremić, P. Vulić, and A. S. Nikolić, “A study of the structural and morphological properties of Ni–ferrite, Zn–ferrite and Ni–Zn–ferrites functionalized with starch,” Ceram. Int., vol. 44, no. 12, pp. 14163-14168, 2018. Crossref

Z. Zhang, Y. Liu, G. Yao, G. Zu, and Y. Hao, “Synthesis and characterization of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles via solid‐state reaction,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 142-149, 2013. Crossref

S. Sagadevan, Z. Z. Chowdhury, and R. F. Rafique, “Preparation and characterization of nickel ferrite nanoparticles via co-precipitation method,” Mat. Res., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 1-5, 2018. Crossref

M. M. Bućko and K. Haberko, “Hydrothermal synthesis of nickel ferrite powders, their properties and sintering,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., vol. 27, no. 2-3, pp. 723-727, 2007. Crossref

D. H. Chen and X. R. He, “Synthesis of nickel ferrite nanoparticles by sol-gel method,” Mater. Res. Bull., vol. 36, no. 7-8, pp. 1369-1377, 2001. Crossref

J. Rodríguez-Carvajal, “Recent advances in magnetic structure determination by neutron powder diffraction,” Physica B: Condens. Matter, vol. 192, no. 1-2, pp. 55-69, 1993. Crossref

ASM Handbook, Volume 1: Properties and Selection: Irons, Steels, and High-Performance Alloys, ASM International, Materials Park, OH, 1990.

E. R. Jette and F. Foote, “An X-ray study of the Wüstite (FeO) solid solutions,” J. Chem. Phys., vol. 1, pp. 29-36, 1933. Crossref

W. H. Bragg, “The structure of magnetite and the spinels,” Nature, vol. 95, p. 561, July, 1915. Crossref

G. Kh. Rozenberg, L. S. Dubrovinsky, T. Le Bihan, M. P. Pasternak, O. Naaman, and R. Ahuja, “High-pressure structural studies of hematite Fe2O3,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 65, pp. 064112-1–064112-8, 2002. Crossref

A. Kremenović, B. Antić, M. Vučinić‐Vasić, P. Colomban, Č. Jovalekić, N. Bibić, V. Kahlenberg, and M. Leoni, ”Temperature-induced structure and microstructure evolution of nanostructured Ni0.9Zn0.1O,” J. Appl. Cryst., vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 699-709, 2010. Crossref

F. L. Zabotto, A. J. Gualdi, J. A. Eiras, A. J. A. de Oliveira, and D. Garcia, “Influence of the sintering temperature on the magnetic and electric properties of NiFe2O4 ferrites,” Mat. Res., vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 428-443, 2012. Crossref

V. Corral-Flores, D. Bueno-Baqués, A. V. Glushchenko, R. F. Ziolo, J. A. Matutes-Aquino, R. Sato-Turtelli, and R. Grössinger, “Magnetic properties of spinel cobalt–manganese ferrites,” IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 1-6, Apr. 2015. Crossref

J. A. Toledo, M. A. Valenzuela, P. Bosch, H. Armendáriz, A. Montoya, N. Nava, and A. Vázquez, “Effect of AI3+ introduction into hydrothermally prepared ZnFe¬2O4,” App. Catal. A: Gen., vol. 198, no. 1-2, pp. 235-245, 2000. Crossref

C. Zhao, W. Huang, X. Liu, S. W. Or, and C. Cui, “Microwave absorbing properties of NiFe2O4 nanosheets synthesized via a simple surfactant-assisted solution route,” Mat. Res., vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 1149-1154, 2016. Crossref

M. H. Khedr, “Effect of firing temperature and compacting pressure on the magnetic and electrical properties of nickel-ferrite,” Physicochem. Probl. Miner. Process., vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 311-320, 2004.

M. M. Pande, M. Guo, X. Guo, D. Geysen, S. Devisscher, B. Blanpain, and P. Wollants, “Impurities in commercial ferroalloys and its Influence on the steel cleanliness,” in Proc. 12th Int. Ferroalloys Congr. Sustainable Future, 2010, pp. 935-944.

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Jurnal Elektronika dan Telekomunikasi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.